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Land Rover - 4x4 Off Road Vehicle Recovery

 
Off road Recovery | Anchoring Points | Recovery with a Winch | Recovery WITHOUT a Winch

Off Road 4x4 Vehicle Recovery Tips Tricks and Terminology

If you sharpen your spade's leading edge and left edge with a grinder, it will dig a lot easier in marshy ground - it can also be used for bush clearing or clearing plant material away from the wheels or chassis when bogged down.

A Snatch block is the same as a pulley except it swivels open so that it can be fitted to a winch cable - It is not related to a snatch strap.

Make up a metal or wooden plate to fit the foot of your high lift jack in - This will help prevent it from squishing into the mud when jacking in soft terrain then fit a rope to it to pull it out again

Towing Vehicles on Road

Some guidelines for towing vehicles:

  • All vehicles can be towed using a rope, chain, bar or A-Frame, provided all 4 wheels are on the road surface BUT take note of the following regarding vehicles with coil springs ie (90, 110. 130, Range Rover, Discovery):

    • Both prop shafts must be fitted or both must be removed

    • Automatics must be in neutral, transfer case must be in neutral, diff lock off.

    • Manuals must be in neutral, transfer case must be in neutral, diff lock off

  • If the front wheels (Air and Coil sprung vehicles only) are lifted  off the ground for towing, as with a mobi-jack trailer or a light recovery tow truck, REMOVE THE REAR PROP SHAFT, this is of critical importance. If this is not done, the centre differential will overheat and wear excessively to the point of total destruction, this can happen in a few km's. Same goes for lifting the front wheels and removing the front prop shaft.

  • When towing, remember that your little train is actually very long and you need to take corners much wider so that the rear vehicle can clear the corner, and remember the rear vehicle when crossing an intersection, you need lots of time to cross in. 

  • Keep the speed down, an out of control vehicle on the end of a tow strap at 100Km/h can be the end of both vehicles and their occupants.

  • GO SLOWLY, the towed vehicle will very easily over-heat it's brakes due to lack if engine braking - leading to brake failure.

  • When using a rope or chain, remember - Your brakes will be very bad since the engine powered booster is inactive AND the towed vehicle will always want to catch up with the towing vehicle.

Off-Road Recovery

General

As an off-road enthusiast, you are undoubtedly  going to get stuck some time. You may have help nearby or you may be completely alone.

There are several techniques available to the recovery operator to get his vehicle free, some require a lot of muscle power while other require more brain power.

In all situations when a vehicle is stuck, you must always assess the conditions and make a careful educated decision on how to recover the vehicle. 
Often a lot of time is wasted when the first recovery attempt fails due to sloppiness or carelessness. Take your time in figuring out your escape route / tactic, pulling direction and anchor points. If you are going to use a winch and anchor points are few, make the best use of those you have; If you damage or destroy the only anchor point you have you will have an even bigger problem than you originally started with.
As with most low traction situations, momentum is important, so, if you get a vehicle unstuck, the vehicle must be driven or towed to firm ground in one movement, don't stop until you are sure the terrain is firm.

Recovery failures are often the direct result of haste.

ANCHORING POINTS

Natural Anchors

Trees, stumps,  rocks and roots are natural anchors. Always attach your strap near the ground when using a tree or a stump as an anchor. You should tie the first tree or stump to a second one to provide added support for the strap if the tree is soft or thin. When using a rock as an anchor, be sure it is large and firmly embedded in the ground, make sure the attachment does not slip under or over the rack.

Man Made Anchors

Deadman

You can construct anchors when natural ones are not available. One of the best types of constructed anchors that can be used for heavy loads is called a deadman anchor. It consists of a log, steel beam, or your spare tyre, buried in the ground with the tow line connected to it at the centre. To construct a deadman anchor, follow these steps:

  • Select a place where the direction of pull is as nearly horizontal as possible, such as a sharp bank or crest. Thus, you obtain more holding power with less digging.

  • When digging slant the bank at least 15 degrees from the vertical and undercut toward the disabled vehicle.

  • If the ground is extremely soft, drive stakes in front of the deadman at each end to hold it in place or dig deeper.

  • Tie the tow line to the centre of the deadman so the main or standing part of the line leads from the bottom of the deadman. Dig a narrow trench for the tow line; bear to the centre of the deadman.

Pegged Chain

In some instances the surrounding ground is very firm, is this situation you can use a pegged chain as an anchor.

Take about 3 meters of chain, lay it down straight, inline with the stuck vehicle, using stout pegs, peg the chain to the ground firmly using as many pegs as possible, always ensure that the pulling force does not tend to lift the chain from the ground.

Sand Anchors and similar Equipment

 

There are various sand based anchors available on the market, they often work quite well, but can only be used in soft sand, thus they have a limited usefulness. 

Recovery with a Winch

Winch Safety

Recovery points: It is very important to ensure that your towing attachment point is not loose or rusty. Land Rovers are usually shipped with small shipping eyes front and rear, these points are for securing the vehicle during transit and are NOT to be used as recovery points. 
An ideal rear point is a ball and pin type system or just a tow ball in it's uppermost position. 
In most cases, factory fitted or original OEM tow balls are strong enough for vehicle recovery procedures. Older vehicles with severe rust problems must be inspected first.
The front is more of a problem: Those with bull bars can have "D" rings or Hooks fitted directly to the bull bar inline with the chassis, those with only a standard bumper can get "Jate Rings" fitted. These are scarce but very strong - The Jate Ring is a "D" shaped steel ring that bolts firmly to the chassis.
Where possible, you should try to use both hooks or rings at the same time, this will spread the load.
Ex-Military vehicles (Series 2,3 and R6) with heavy duty bumpers often have built-in D rings, these are very strong and can be used for all recovery operations.

Sound Winching Practice

  • Never bend the wire cable at a sharp angle or around a sharp corner like a chassis or spring hanger - the cable will kink, causing a weak spot and it will not roll onto the drum evenly. 

  • Straighten out all kinks and twists as you take up the slack, never let a loop tighten up as this will cause a kink.

  • Always use gloves when handling a steel cable, small bits of cable often stick out and can cause serious damage to the hands and legs.

  • After using the winch, have one person pull back on the cable while it is wound slowly and evenly on the drum, pack the cable tightly on the drum layer by layer.

  • Never load the winch if the cable is running criss-cross over the drum or the cable is loose on the drum - this will cause the cable to slip and jam, it may also crush the cable causing flat spots.

  • Try not to submerge the winch, water will always enter the mechanicals, if not tended to the internals will rust or seize and you winch will let you down.

  • Never operate the winch in / out button if the drum fails to move - it may be that the winch is over loaded or has become jammed, operation of the switch could destroy the motor.

  • Always ensure you use the recommended electrical cable and that all connections are tight and completely rust and oxide free. 

  • When using the winch, try to un-spool all the cable up to the middle of the last layer - this will give maximum pulling power.

  • Where possible, use at least one snatch block and in tough conditions, use two, this practice ensures the winch and electrical system are not over loaded or over stressed. 
    - Remember that your electric winch can draw up to 6 times more current than your alternator can supply, this places extreme demands on your alternator and battery or batteries. A standard Land Rover battery  can only power a winch under full load for about  7 minutes until it is totally flat.

To ensure your safety, the protection of your equipment, and the success of your recovery operation, use the following as a guide:

  • Check the capacity of your winch. The capacity shown on the manufacturer's plate is the maximum with one layer of cable on the drum with perfect battery and cables. Each successive layer increases the diameter of the drum and reduces the winch capacity to as little as 50 percent of the rated capacity when the last layer is being wound on the drum.

  • Select or provide a suitable anchor. Remember, the purpose of this operation is to recover a vehicle, not to pull stumps.

  • Rig and check rigging. Do not put power on your winch until you check every element in your rigging and are satisfied that you made no mistakes. Winches are extremely dangerous, take care.

  • All people observing the operation should stand outside the angle formed by the cable under stress at a distance at least equal to the distance between the two most distant points in the rigging. 

  • A snapped winch cable reacts like a whip. It can easily slice trees and people in half.

Single-Vehicle Winch Operation

If you are  travelling alone and get into a spot where your traction is not enough to get you through, use your winch and suitable recovery gear to pull you through or get you back to solid footing.
Working alone or with local help, recovery may take time, but do not skimp on planning. 
A very important thing to remember while recovering a vehicle is that there should be only one person in charge. A lot of human and vehicle damage has been recorded due to misunderstanding within the recovery team. When working with local inhabitants, ensure that they know what to do and that they know that you are the boss. A lot of time can be wasted if the whole "team" is not working together.

The procedure: Select or construct a strong anchor. Attach a snatch block to the anchor with a chain or strap.  Run the winch cable through the block and back to the vehicle. Lift the bonnet to protect the occupants should the snatch block/cable snap. Take up the slack gradually, duck behind the dash board and pull the vehicle forward with its winch. Power may be gently applied to the wheels at the same time but don't spin excessively. 

Single Vehicle Winch Operation

Two-Vehicle Winch Operation

Mechanical advantage is gained by using a snatch block or pulley. A small force, when moved through a long distance by one or more mechanisms (pulleys), will move a large weight (vehicle) for a short distance. Use one of the following procedures when rigging for greater mechanical advantage.

Two-Part Line. This simple hook-up gives a 2:1 mechanical advantage. Attach a snatch block to the load. Next, run your winch cable through the block and secure the cable to the winch vehicle. Place a log or rock in front of the towing vehicle to help hold its ground.

Three-Part Line. To get a mechanical advantage of 3:1, use two snatch blocks--one at the load and one on the winch vehicle. Thread the winch cable first through the block on the load, back through the block on the winch, and then again to the load where it is secured.

Four-Part Line. To get a 4:1 mechanical advantage, use two snatch blocks--a double-sheave block for the load and a single-sheave block for the winch vehicle. Thread the winch cable through one sheave of the double block attached to the load back through the single sheave on the winch vehicle, and again to the load through the second sheave of the double block. Finally secure it to the winch vehicle. Note that due to friction, it is not efficient to attempt to use an advantage of more than 4:1

 

Non-Traditional Winches

WARNING: All recovery or lever based devices intended for moving loads (Hand Winches, hoists and high lift jacks) are designed with a particular fixed lever length, DO Not alter the length by adding a pipe or pole to make operation easier - If it is too difficult to operate the supplied lever then the device is being over loaded.

Hub Winches

There is an original Land Rover device called a Hub Winch. This device consists of a pair of deep steel dishes that are bolted onto the rear wheels of a vehicle. One attaches one end of a fabric strap or non-stretch rope around each drum and the other ends to a length of stout rope. Fit a pulley to the rope and attach the pulley to an anchor point. The pulley is important as it equalizes the strain between sides such that if one wheel spins it will take up the slack so that the strap does not fall off the opposite side.
Take note to wrap the strap in the opposite direction of rotation of the wheel. Gently drive the vehicle out of the situation, taking care not to drive on the strap when grip is re-gained. There is no need for excessive power, drive in 1st or reverse in low range with centre diff locked where applicable. The reason for fitting hub winches to the rear wheels only is that the steering mechanism will get bent as the front axle cannot cope with such loads.
The original hub winches are fairly scarce and can only be used on steel rims. 
There is, however an equivalent available, called Hubbytrax, these are available at 4x4 stores and chain stores. The straps used should have a 6 ton rating and each need only be 8 meters long and the rest of the distance can be taken up with a rope, via the pulley.

The Tur-For Cable Winch

The Tur-For cable hand winch is quite popular in the UK, not seen in SA at this stage, they are strong, compact and easy to use - Have a look in the British Land Rover Magazines for suppliers. The dis advantage is that it uses a cable which must be rolled up by hand after use and must be stored some where.

The Hand Operated Cable Hoist and Block & Tackle

The small hand operated cable hoists can also be used for light recovery like righting a rolled vehicle.
Another option is a plain old block and tackle, very effective, very tough, very adaptable and useful, and it will always work. It is quite heavy though. 

The High Lift Jack

The trusty high lift jack, has several uses, among them is a winch.

It is used in conjunction with a chain and a chain only as it must not stretch. 
The top end of the jack is attached to the anchor point and the mechanism is attached via a chain to the vehicle.
As the handle is operated, the mechanism moves up the rack, pulling the vehicle along with it. 
When the mechanism reaches the top, the vehicle's chain must be attached to the anchor chain to prevent the vehicle rolling back into the hole.
The mechanism is then reset to the bottom of the rack and the process is repeated until the vehicle can be driven out of the hole.
The jack is surprisingly strong and will extract most stuck vehicles - take note that it is extremely hard work.

Capstan Winch

The Capstan winch for a Land Rover, was made by Fairey Winches, UK. 
It is identical in operation to the marine versions as used on yachts and ships. 
It works by wrapping three coils of rope around a tapered bollard, as you pull on the exit rope, the coils tighten and the rope binds on the bollard producing a very substantial pull, by controlling the pulling force, the winch pulling strength can be controlled.

The Flip-Flop Winch

In the pictures below the logs have been shortened. Ideally they should be as big as you can work with. The lever is practical up to about 2.5m long, if it gets too long it becomes too cumbersome.

Place the rope over the winch log and under the lever log.  The lever is under the winch.  Start tightening the rope by moving the lever pole like it is in the next frame.
 
winch 
flip the lever over.
Move the rope so that the winding is done on one side of the lever.
winch.
Continue flipping the winch pole and winding with the lever pole until you have winched your load to where you want it.
Repeat from step one.
  • If you are winching alone tie 2 keeper loops of cord around the lever and the rope so that you can flip.  If you have a helper one of you flip and the other winch.

  • Remember the winch is going to move toward the anchor at half the rate that the load does.

  • Try this with two pencils first to get the hang of it.

Hijacked from from http://www.edibleplants.com/month/flipflop.htm  Author : John Goude - who learned to drive in a Land Rover
(I would like to inform you that I learned to drive in a Land Rover after my family took it across the Sahara Desert way back in 1965 and have spent many hours working on it too. )

More info on types of winches

 

Recovery WITHOUT a Winch

General

When you don't have a winch, you have 2 options, use a second vehicle to pull you out or do some self recovery.

Second Vehicle Recovery

Tow Strap
The most important item needed for second vehicle recovery is a tow strap, rope, chain or bar.
The most popular item is a flat webbing strap. These come in several different sizes and colours.
The typical rating is around 6 tons.
Tow straps cannot be used with a snatch block as snatch blocks only work with cables and ropes.
Do Not use a regular tow strap as a snatch strap -  you will break it and the vehicle - see below.

If the Recovery Vehicle spins....
If your recovery vehicle spins and can't recover the stuck vehicle, you can use one of the two following recovery methods:

Snatch Block / Pulley 
If you are using a cable or rope and need more pulling power, you can use a pulley or snatch block to gain a pulling advantage.
Connect the pulley / snatch block to the stuck vehicle, feed the rope through, and pull it towards the recovery vehicle but attach it to a ground anchor point between the stuck vehicle and the recovery vehicle, attach the other side of the rope to the towing vehicle. The pulley will give a 2:1 advantage, making pulling easier. (A snatch block is NOT related to a snatch strap)

Snatch Strap or Kinetic Strap
The snatch strap is probably the most dangerous of all recovery equipment or procedures.
The basic principle is that of using inertia to un-stick  vehicle - it is extremely effective as the stored energy is immense.
The strap is connected to the stuck vehicle and to the recovery vehicle - the recovery vehicle leaves about 1-2 meters of slack in the strap and drives away from the stuck vehicle, as the strap tightens up, it begins to stretch, sometimes up to about 40% longer, as the recovery vehicle slows down due to the increasing load, the stuck vehicle usually "pops" out of it's hole - but it then speeds up towards the recovery vehicle as the strap is now trying to contract, everything happens rather quickly and both drivers must pay careful attention.
Often only a snatch strap will free a stuck vehicle - it is especially useful when the entire area is very slippery and no vehicle can keep grip.

A snatch strap can be considered to be a giant elastic band - everyone has played with an elastic band and found that when it snaps, it can be extremely painful.
This is the reason for taking serious precautions when using snatch straps - It's stored kinetic energy is incredible, it can destroy people and vehicles in a flash.

Points to remember when using Kinetic / Snatch straps

  • Towing points MUST be checked very carefully for safety - If a snatch strap is to be used on a vehicle, BOTH vehicles should be fitted with TWO recovery points each, and BOTH points MUST be used as the kinetic strap has the ability to pull an entire towing attachment off and fling it straight through a vehicle out the other side and still keep on going, the human body inbetween will be destroyed.

  • NEVER use a regular towing strap with a snatch strap as the snatch strap is rated at around 15 tons, the towing strap may snap causing untold damage.

  • If either of the vehicles have only one recovery point - either find another one or attach the strap directly to the axle - make sure the surface is smooth and will not cut the strap.

  • READ THE INSTRUCTION LEAFLET - Snatch straps can only be used a specific number of times - After this they MUST BE DISCARDED - Yes, it would seem stupid to throw away a perfectly good looking strap that cost you a fortune, but remember, if it breaks you, your family and your friends are going to be around it - they are worth more than the strap.

  • New or used straps can safely be used for towing vehicles on road as it has the stretch which prevents the jerky pull-offs. If you decide to throw it away, it is best to cut it up before throwing it away, or else someone else will pick it up and hurt himself or others.

  • They can usually be identified as snatch straps by their width, snatch straps are 2 or 3 times wider than regular tow straps - but take note - check the strap to make sure - don't assume it to be a snatch if it is wider. 

Self Recovery

The goal of self recovery

A recovery operation without a winch or second vehicle is very possible given enough time, planning and hard work.

The main aim when attempting self recovery is to remove the obstructions preventing the vehicle from moving. This is done by either digging in front / behind the wheels and chassis or by lifting the vehicle up from the surface, and filling in underneath or "throwing the vehicle over" to harder ground.
Often the terrain is very soft and the vehicle will tend to sink in if it is driven or shaken too much, therefore you must make every attempt to prepare the surfaces such that the vehicle has the best chance of getting out on the first attempt, if more work can be done to better the chances, do the work first before attempting to drive out.

Note the following table listing tools to have in your vehicle to assist in self recovery:

High-lift jack Sand Ladders
Spade Chain, nuts and bolts
Bow Saw / Panga Strong Tie-down straps
Shovel Axe

Brief Description of Tools

High Lift Jack

This device comes in a few shapes and sizes - (High Lift Jack, Jack-all, Jumbo Jack etc)
The basic operation is the same, the jack consists of a mechanism with a single fork sticking out one side and a long lever on the other, the mechanism climbs up and down a long vertical rack.
The fork bit is inserted under a form part of the vehicle and the handle is operated, as the mechanism climbs up the rack, it lifts the vehicle -  up to 1.6 meters up !  It is probably the single most dangerous device you will ever find relating to recovery - read, understand and adhere to the instruction manual - or you may loose your face, teeth, eye, jaw, arm or goodies. It almost goes without saying that you must NEVER step over the handle...

Air Jack

This is a large heavy duty bag that is inserted under the vehicle and then inflated using the exhaust of the stricken vehicle (Provided it is running)
The bag is capable of lifting the whole vehicle up so be careful ! 
It has a valve on which is turned to gradually release the pressure in the bag thus bringing the vehicle back down.

Spade and Shovel

Spades are good at digging through marsh ground and harsh ground and getting in under the vehicle, but shovels are better at moving large volumes of ground when making a hole or filling a hole. Even if only you are going to use the spade/shovel, try take another one with you as there are often locals that are eager to help recover your vehicle but cannot assist because they do not have a spade.

Sand Ladders / Bridging Ladders

Sand Ladders come in many different shapes and sizes, the best and original being the "Camel Trophy" type, which is a thick alloy sheet with corrugations and holes pressed in. Take note that these sand ladders are NOT bridging ladders and cannot be used to cross a ravine or gully.
These are not locally available but can be imported from Europe and the UK

Other types if sand ladders are the fold up type (folds up into a cube) These are popular but have been known to disintegrate on heavy use.

It is important to peg down the front of the ladders to prevent the tyres from pulling them under the vehicle.

Bridging Ladders are another form of sand ladder, these are thicker and have a double decker type of structure so that they can support a tyre when crossing a ravine. 

Bow Saw / Panga / Axe

These tools are very useful for clearing the bush cutting down branches or even trees in order to make a road way or solid surface to drive on.
If you are gathering firewood, a bow saw is most effective at cutting dry logs and trees. A panga and an axe work well for wet wood.

Chains, nut and bolts

These can be fashioned into tyre chains or an effective ground anchor using pegs.

Strong tie-downs

These have a few uses in recovery, as axle straps and as lashing straps:

The problem with coil sprung vehicles (Defender, Range Rover, Disco) is that the suspension extends so much when jacking up the chassis,  that the high lifting effect becomes very little. If you strap the chassis and axles together such that the springs cannot extend, the axles get lifted much sooner enabling a you to fill the holes easier or throw the vehicle to the side easier.

Tie-downs are useful for tying logs together to drive on, or to make some ort of support...

Some Clever Techniques

If the vehicle is so bogged that the chassis and axles are in the mud as well, you will need to use the high lift jack or Air-jack to lift the vehicle from the mud.

  • The vehicle is jacked up such that the wheels are well out of the holes - the vehicle will be very unstable at this point, be careful.

  • Either fill the holes with stones, rocks, logs or what ever else you can find (Spare wheels), or stand on one side and physically push the vehicle to the firmest terrain such that it falls off of the jack and lands with it's wheels on new ground. This is most efficiently done by jacking the vehicle to the full height of the jack before pushing it off.

  • Repeat this procedure for the rear of the vehicle.

  • After doing it a few times, not only will you be totally exhausted, but the vehicle will also be standing on a new surface and can then be driven to a safe place,

If your vehicle has dropped into a hole or ditch, you can use the lever principle to get it out. First, find a long pole, tree, plank or similar material with a diameter that available people can handle. Place a suitable fulcrum (pivot point) near the point of lift, a log or rock that will not move when pressure is applied. Rig the lever under the bumper for the first lift. Support the vehicle after each lift until it is clear of the mud.
Block the wheels when you have gained all you can. Re-rig for a second lift with the point of the lever under the axle if possible. Lift and block. Repeat these steps until the vehicle can be reversed off without too much trouble.
This procedure will be a problem with coil sprung or heavily laden vehicles as the chassis and body will tend to lift forever until the axle lifts, to get around this problem either tie the axle firmly to the chassis using tie-downs or fit stones or blocks of wood between the axle and chassis bump stop when the suspension is fully extended.

A Simple Lever Principle

If you are alone and must move a light vehicle a short distance without power, use a lever. You will need a fairly long pole or crowbar, a rope, cable, or chain, and a suitable anchorage for the point of the bar. The distance from the lever to the point of attachment of the tow rope must be quite short to give you enough advantage. You will not move very far at each try, but you will be able to move slowly.

A Frame Recovery

Narrow ditches, slit trenches, and holes can quickly stop your vehicle. They are common obstacles to off-road movement and maybe hard to see. If your front wheels should drop into one, the A-frame is a very useful recovery tool. It is not very difficult to put together nor too complicated to use. You need two 2 meter poles with a large enough diameter to support the front end of your vehicle. Tie them together near the top with a figure eight or girth knot; use your tow chain or a length of rope. Dig two 300mm holes 1,2 meters apart to hold the legs in position when power is applied. Rest the upper end of the A-frame on the bumper / bull bar of the vehicle with the legs in the anchor holes. Select a suitable anchor in front of the vehicle. Tie a line from the A-frame joint to the anchor, bringing the frame up to a position where the frame joint is directly over or slightly to the rear of the bumper. Move your winch line or tow line through a snatch block fastened to the A-frame joint and secure it to the front bumper.

Winch up the front end of the vehicle until the wheels clear the ditch. Then slowly reverse the vehicle back to solid ground. When safely away from the edge of the ditch, lower the wheels and unhitch your vehicle. If you have no winch, another vehicle may be used for power, though more rigging will be required.

Field Improvising

Substitutes for a Jack

  • Another simple method, good for any wheel on a 4WD vehicle, is to rig an inclined plane with two logs of suitable size (or a stone and a log). When the vehicle is driven ahead the axle is pushed up the log until the wheel clears the ground. Set brakes and block the vehicle securely. You can easily reverse off when your job is completed.

  • You can also fit a few rocks / logs under the axle then dig a hole beneath the wheel until it is free, when finished just drive off the rocks / logs.

  • On a more extreme note drive the vehicle through a gully such that the wheel in question is lifted off the ground by articulation.

Bumper Jack
To raise the front end, make your own bumper jack by fastening a piece of timber at an angle to the front bumper with a chain or rope. Move your vehicle backward until the timber is vertical and the wheel clears the ground. Block the vehicle securely before working on the tyre. When through, pull forward and unhitch.

Method for Raising a Wheel out of a rut
If one of your driving wheels falls in a deep hole, you can get out with a log and a chain . Chain the log to the wheel and move forward slowly to prevent spinning. If the wheel spins, the log will damage the fender or other parts of your vehicle. After clearing the hole, force the log under the wheel to keep it from falling back into the hole. Clearly this method needs rims with holes in such as the Pro White, Steel Disco or Land Rover Wolf / 130 rims.

Use of a Skid
A flat tyre or bad wheel that you cannot repair should not stop your Land Rover. Use a skid on the rear wheels only. If necessary, change wheels from one hub to another. Use a skid in the following manner:

  • Obtain a pole 100mm in diameter and 2 m long.

  • Place one end of the pole above the cross member near the transmission and the other end on the ground.

  • Pass the pole under the spring U-bolts, align it with the spring and lash it securely to the spring.

  • Move the vehicle, using front-wheel drive. Starting will be difficult, but once moving, the vehicle will ride and handle surprisingly well.

     

Substitutes for Tyre Chain

If your rims have holes in them (Pro white, Disco Steel, or Wolf / 130 rims only) you can make up temporary tyre chains. Thread a rope or chain through the holes in the rim round the tyre. Fasten them securely, but leave slack around the tires to prevent damage. Remember, these are only temporary substitutes. Remove them as soon as possible.

 

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