Off Road 4x4 Vehicle
Recovery Tips Tricks and Terminology
If you sharpen your spade's leading edge and left edge
with a grinder, it will dig a lot easier in marshy ground - it can also
be used for bush clearing or clearing plant material away from the
wheels or chassis when bogged down.
A Snatch block is the same as a pulley
except it swivels open so that it can be fitted to a winch cable - It is not
related to a snatch strap.
Make up a metal or wooden plate to fit the
foot of your high lift jack in - This will help prevent it from squishing
into the mud when jacking in soft terrain
then fit a rope to it to pull it out again
Vehicles on Road
Some guidelines for towing vehicles:
All vehicles can be towed using a rope, chain, bar or
A-Frame, provided all 4 wheels are on the road surface BUT take note of the
following regarding vehicles with coil springs ie (90, 110. 130, Range Rover,
Both prop shafts must be fitted or both must be removed
Automatics must be in neutral, transfer case must be in
Manuals must be in neutral, transfer case must be in
neutral, diff lock off
If the front wheels (Air and Coil sprung vehicles only) are
lifted off the ground for towing, as with a mobi-jack trailer or a light
recovery tow truck, REMOVE THE REAR PROP SHAFT, this is of critical
importance. If this is not done, the centre differential will overheat and wear excessively
to the point of total destruction, this can happen in a few km's. Same goes
for lifting the front wheels and removing the front prop shaft.
When towing, remember that your little train is
actually very long and you need to take corners much wider so that the rear vehicle can
clear the corner, and remember the rear vehicle when crossing an intersection,
you need lots of time to cross in.
Keep the speed down, an out of control vehicle on the end
of a tow strap at 100Km/h can be the end of both vehicles and their occupants.
GO SLOWLY, the towed vehicle will very
easily over-heat it's brakes due to lack if engine braking - leading to
When using a rope or chain, remember - Your brakes will be very bad
since the engine powered booster is inactive AND the towed vehicle will
always want to catch up with the towing vehicle.
As an off-road enthusiast, you are undoubtedly going
to get stuck some time. You may have help nearby or you may be completely alone.
There are several techniques available to the recovery
operator to get his vehicle free, some require a lot of muscle power while other
require more brain power.
In all situations when a vehicle is stuck, you must always
assess the conditions and make a careful educated decision on how to recover the
Often a lot of time is wasted when the first recovery attempt fails due to sloppiness
or carelessness. Take your time in figuring out your escape route / tactic, pulling
direction and anchor
points. If you are going to use a winch and anchor points are few, make the best use of those you have; If
you damage or destroy the only anchor point you have you will have an even
bigger problem than you originally started with.
As with most low traction situations, momentum is important, so, if you get a
vehicle unstuck, the vehicle must be driven or towed to firm ground in one
movement, don't stop until you are sure the terrain is firm.
Recovery failures are often the direct result of
Trees, stumps, rocks and roots
are natural anchors. Always
attach your strap near the ground when using a tree or a stump as an anchor. You
should tie the first tree or stump to a second one to provide added support for
the strap if the tree is soft or thin. When using a rock as an anchor, be sure it is large and firmly
embedded in the ground, make sure the attachment does not slip under or over
Man Made Anchors
You can construct anchors when natural ones are not
available. One of the best types of constructed anchors that can be used for
heavy loads is called a deadman anchor. It consists of a log, steel beam, or
your spare tyre, buried in the ground with the tow line connected to it at the
centre. To construct a deadman anchor, follow these steps:
Select a place where the direction of pull is as nearly
horizontal as possible, such as a sharp bank or crest. Thus, you obtain more
holding power with less digging.
When digging slant the bank at least 15 degrees from
the vertical and undercut toward the disabled vehicle.
If the ground is extremely soft, drive stakes in front
of the deadman at each end to hold it in place or dig deeper.
Tie the tow line to the centre of the deadman so the
main or standing part of the line leads from the bottom of the deadman. Dig
a narrow trench for the tow line; bear to the centre of the deadman.
In some instances the surrounding
ground is very firm, is this situation you can use a pegged chain as an anchor.
Take about 3 meters of chain, lay it
down straight, inline with the stuck vehicle, using stout pegs, peg the chain to the
ground firmly using as many pegs as possible, always ensure that the pulling
force does not tend to lift the chain from the ground.
Sand Anchors and
There are various sand based anchors
available on the market, they often work quite well, but can only be used in
soft sand, thus they have a limited usefulness.
Recovery points: It is very important to ensure that your towing
attachment point is not loose or rusty. Land Rovers are usually shipped with small
shipping eyes front and rear, these points are for securing the vehicle during
transit and are NOT to be used as recovery points.
An ideal rear point is a ball and pin type system or just a tow ball in it's uppermost position.
In most cases, factory fitted or original OEM tow balls are strong enough for
vehicle recovery procedures. Older vehicles with severe rust problems must be
is more of a problem: Those with bull bars can have "D" rings or Hooks
fitted directly to the bull bar inline with the chassis, those with only a
standard bumper can get "Jate Rings" fitted. These are scarce but very strong - The
Jate Ring is a "D" shaped steel ring that bolts firmly to the chassis.
Where possible, you should try to use both hooks or rings at the same time,
this will spread the load.
Ex-Military vehicles (Series 2,3 and R6) with heavy duty bumpers often have
built-in D rings, these are very strong and can be used for all recovery
Sound Winching Practice
Never bend the wire cable at a sharp
angle or around a sharp corner like a chassis or spring hanger - the cable will
kink, causing a weak spot and it will not roll onto the drum evenly.
all kinks and twists as you take up the slack, never let a loop tighten up as
this will cause a kink.
Always use gloves when handling a steel cable, small bits of cable often stick
out and can cause serious damage to the hands and legs.
After using the winch, have one person pull back on the cable while it is wound slowly and evenly on the
drum, pack the cable tightly on the drum layer by layer.
Never load the winch if the
cable is running criss-cross over the drum or the cable is loose on the
drum - this will cause the cable to slip and jam, it may also crush the
cable causing flat spots.
Try not to submerge the winch,
water will always enter the mechanicals, if not tended to the internals
will rust or seize and you winch will let you down.
Never operate the winch in /
out button if the drum fails to move - it may be that the winch is over
loaded or has become jammed, operation of the switch could destroy the
Always ensure you use the
recommended electrical cable and that all connections are tight and
completely rust and oxide free.
When using the winch, try to
un-spool all the cable up to the middle of the last layer - this will give
maximum pulling power.
Where possible, use at least
one snatch block and in tough conditions, use two, this practice ensures
the winch and electrical system are not over loaded or over
- Remember that your electric winch can draw up to 6 times more current
than your alternator can supply, this places extreme demands on your
alternator and battery or batteries. A standard Land Rover battery
can only power a winch under full load for about 7 minutes until it
is totally flat.
To ensure your safety, the protection of your equipment,
and the success of your recovery operation, use the following as a guide:
Check the capacity of your winch. The capacity shown on
the manufacturer's plate is the maximum with one layer of cable on the
drum with perfect battery and cables. Each successive layer increases the diameter of the drum and
reduces the winch capacity to as little as 50 percent of the rated capacity
when the last layer is being wound on the drum.
Select or provide a suitable anchor. Remember, the
purpose of this operation is to recover a vehicle, not to pull stumps.
Rig and check rigging. Do not put power on your winch
until you check every element in your rigging and are satisfied that you
made no mistakes. Winches are extremely dangerous, take care.
All people observing the operation should stand outside
the angle formed by the cable under stress at a distance at least equal to
the distance between the two most distant points in the rigging.
A snapped winch cable reacts like a whip.
It can easily slice trees and people in half.
Single-Vehicle Winch Operation
If you are travelling alone and get into a spot where
your traction is not enough to get you through, use your winch and suitable
recovery gear to pull you through or get you back to solid footing.
Working alone or with local help, recovery may take time, but do not skimp on
A very important thing to remember while recovering a vehicle is that there
should be only one person in charge. A lot of human and vehicle damage has been
recorded due to misunderstanding within the recovery team. When working with
local inhabitants, ensure that they know what to do and that they know that you
are the boss. A lot of time can be wasted if the whole "team" is not
The procedure: Select or construct a strong anchor.
Attach a snatch block to the anchor with a chain or strap. Run the winch
cable through the block and back to the vehicle. Lift the bonnet to protect the
occupants should the snatch block/cable snap. Take up the slack gradually, duck
behind the dash board and pull the vehicle forward with its winch. Power may be
gently applied to the wheels at the same time but don't spin excessively.
Two-Vehicle Winch Operation
Mechanical advantage is gained by using a snatch block or
pulley. A small force, when moved through a long distance by one or more
mechanisms (pulleys), will move a large weight (vehicle) for a short distance.
Use one of the following procedures when rigging for greater mechanical
Two-Part Line. This simple
hook-up gives a 2:1 mechanical advantage. Attach a snatch block to the load.
Next, run your winch cable through the block and secure the cable to the winch
vehicle. Place a log or rock in front of the towing vehicle to help hold its ground.
Three-Part Line. To get a
mechanical advantage of 3:1, use two snatch blocks--one at the load and one on
the winch vehicle. Thread the winch cable first through the block on the load, back
through the block on the winch, and then again to the load where it is secured.
Four-Part Line. To get a 4:1 mechanical advantage,
use two snatch blocks--a double-sheave block for the load and a single-sheave
block for the winch vehicle. Thread the winch cable through one sheave of the double block
attached to the load back through the single sheave on the winch vehicle, and
again to the load through the second sheave of the double block. Finally secure
it to the winch vehicle. Note that due to friction, it is not efficient to
attempt to use an advantage of more than 4:1
WARNING: All recovery or lever
based devices intended for moving loads (Hand Winches, hoists and high lift
jacks) are designed with a particular fixed lever length, DO Not alter the length by
adding a pipe or pole to make operation easier - If it is too difficult to
operate the supplied lever then the device is being over loaded.
There is an
original Land Rover device called a Hub Winch. This device consists of a pair of
deep steel dishes that are bolted onto the rear wheels of a vehicle. One
one end of a fabric strap or non-stretch rope around each drum and the other ends to a length of
stout rope. Fit a pulley to the rope and attach the pulley to an anchor point. The pulley is important
as it equalizes the strain
between sides such that if one wheel spins it will take up the slack so that the strap
does not fall off the opposite side.
Take note to wrap the strap in the opposite direction of rotation of the wheel. Gently
drive the vehicle out of the situation, taking care not to drive on the strap
when grip is re-gained. There is no need for excessive power, drive in 1st or
reverse in low range with centre diff locked where applicable. The reason for fitting hub winches to the rear wheels
only is that the steering mechanism will get bent as the front axle cannot
cope with such loads.
The original hub winches are fairly scarce and can only be used on steel rims.
There is, however an equivalent available, called Hubbytrax, these are available
at 4x4 stores and chain stores. The straps used should have a 6 ton rating and
each need only be 8 meters long and the rest of the distance can be taken up
with a rope, via the pulley.
The Tur-For Cable Winch
The Tur-For cable hand winch is
quite popular in the UK, not seen in SA at this stage, they are strong, compact
and easy to use - Have a look in the British Land Rover Magazines for suppliers.
The dis advantage is that it uses a cable which must be rolled up by hand after
use and must be stored some where.
The Hand Operated Cable Hoist and Block &
The small hand operated cable hoists
can also be used for light recovery like righting a rolled vehicle.
Another option is a plain old block and tackle, very effective, very tough, very
adaptable and useful, and it will always work. It is quite heavy though.
The High Lift Jack
high lift jack, has several uses, among them is a winch.
It is used in conjunction with a
chain and a chain only as it must not stretch.
The top end of the jack is attached to the anchor point and the mechanism is
attached via a chain to the vehicle.
As the handle is operated, the mechanism moves up the rack, pulling the vehicle
along with it.
When the mechanism reaches the top, the vehicle's chain must be attached to the
anchor chain to prevent the vehicle rolling back into the hole.
The mechanism is then reset to the bottom of the rack and the process is
repeated until the vehicle can be driven out of the hole.
The jack is surprisingly strong and will extract most stuck vehicles - take note
that it is extremely hard work.
The Capstan winch for a Land
Rover, was made by Fairey Winches, UK.
It is identical in operation to the marine
versions as used on yachts and ships.
It works by wrapping three coils of rope around a tapered bollard, as you pull
on the exit rope, the coils tighten and the rope binds on the bollard
producing a very substantial pull, by controlling the pulling force, the winch
pulling strength can be controlled.
The Flip-Flop Winch
In the pictures below the logs have been shortened. Ideally they should be
as big as you can work with. The lever is practical up to about 2.5m long, if it
gets too long it becomes too cumbersome.
||Place the rope over the winch log and under the lever log. The
lever is under the winch. Start tightening the rope by moving the
lever pole like it is in the next frame. |
||flip the lever over. |
Move the rope so that the winding is done on one side of the
Continue flipping the winch pole and winding with the lever
pole until you have winched your load to where you want
Repeat from step one.
If you are winching alone tie 2 keeper loops of cord around the lever and
the rope so that you can flip. If you have a helper one of you flip and
the other winch.
Remember the winch is going to move toward the anchor at half the rate
that the load does.
Try this with two pencils first
to get the hang of it.
Hijacked from from http://www.edibleplants.com/month/flipflop.htm
Author : John Goude - who learned to drive in a Land Rover
(I would like to inform you that I learned to drive in a Land Rover after my
family took it across the Sahara Desert way back in 1965 and have spent many
hours working on it too. )
More info on
types of winches
Recovery WITHOUT a Winch
When you don't have a winch, you have 2
options, use a second vehicle to pull you out or do some self recovery.
Second Vehicle Recovery
The most important item needed for second vehicle
recovery is a tow strap, rope, chain or bar.
The most popular item is a flat webbing strap. These come in several different
sizes and colours.
The typical rating is around 6 tons.
Tow straps cannot be used with a snatch block as snatch blocks only work with
cables and ropes.
Do Not use a regular tow strap as a snatch strap - you will break it and
the vehicle - see below.
If the Recovery Vehicle
If your recovery vehicle spins and can't recover the
stuck vehicle, you can use one of the two following recovery methods:
Snatch Block / Pulley
If you are using a cable or rope and need more pulling power, you can use a
pulley or snatch block to gain a pulling advantage.
Connect the pulley / snatch block to the stuck vehicle, feed the rope through,
and pull it towards the recovery vehicle but attach it to a ground anchor
point between the stuck vehicle and the recovery vehicle, attach the other
side of the rope to the towing vehicle. The pulley will give a 2:1 advantage,
making pulling easier. (A snatch block is NOT related to a snatch strap)
Snatch Strap or Kinetic
The snatch strap is probably the most dangerous of all recovery equipment or
The basic principle is that of using inertia to un-stick vehicle - it is
extremely effective as the stored energy is immense.
The strap is connected to the stuck vehicle and to the recovery vehicle - the
recovery vehicle leaves about 1-2 meters of slack in the strap and drives away
from the stuck vehicle, as the strap tightens up, it begins to stretch,
sometimes up to about 40% longer, as the recovery vehicle slows down due to
the increasing load, the stuck vehicle usually "pops" out of it's
hole - but it then speeds up towards the recovery vehicle as the strap is now
trying to contract, everything happens rather quickly and both drivers must
pay careful attention.
Often only a snatch strap will free a stuck vehicle - it is especially useful
when the entire area is very slippery and no vehicle can keep grip.
A snatch strap can be considered to be a giant
elastic band - everyone has played with an elastic band and found that when it
snaps, it can be extremely painful.
This is the reason for taking serious precautions when using snatch straps -
It's stored kinetic energy is incredible, it can destroy people and vehicles
in a flash.
Points to remember when using Kinetic / Snatch
Towing points MUST be checked very
carefully for safety - If a snatch strap is to be used on a vehicle, BOTH
vehicles should be fitted with TWO recovery points each, and BOTH points
MUST be used as the kinetic strap has the ability to pull an entire towing
attachment off and fling it straight through a vehicle out the other side
and still keep on going, the human body inbetween will be destroyed.
NEVER use a regular towing strap with a
snatch strap as the snatch strap is rated at around 15 tons, the towing
strap may snap causing untold damage.
If either of the vehicles have only one
recovery point - either find another one or attach the strap directly to
the axle - make sure the surface is smooth and will not cut the strap.
READ THE INSTRUCTION LEAFLET - Snatch
straps can only be used a specific number of times - After this they MUST
BE DISCARDED - Yes, it would seem stupid to throw away a perfectly good
looking strap that cost you a fortune, but remember, if it breaks you,
your family and your friends are going to be around it - they are worth
more than the strap.
New or used straps can safely be used for
towing vehicles on road as it has the stretch which prevents the jerky
pull-offs. If you decide to throw it away, it is best to cut it up before
throwing it away, or else someone else will pick it up and hurt himself or
They can usually be identified as snatch straps by
their width, snatch straps are 2 or 3 times wider than regular tow straps
- but take note - check the strap to make sure - don't assume it to be a
snatch if it is wider.
The goal of self recovery
A recovery operation without a
winch or second vehicle is very possible given enough time, planning and hard work.
The main aim when attempting self recovery is
to remove the obstructions preventing the vehicle from moving. This is
done by either digging in front / behind the wheels and chassis or by lifting
the vehicle up from the surface, and filling in underneath or "throwing
the vehicle over" to harder ground.
Often the terrain is very soft and the vehicle will tend to sink in if it is
driven or shaken too much, therefore you must make every attempt to prepare the surfaces
such that the vehicle has the best chance of getting out on the first attempt, if more work can be
done to better the chances, do the work first before attempting to drive out.
Note the following table listing tools to have in your vehicle to assist in self
Chain, nuts and bolts
Bow Saw / Panga
Strong Tie-down straps
Brief Description of Tools
High Lift Jack
This device comes in a few shapes and sizes -
(High Lift Jack, Jack-all, Jumbo Jack etc)
The basic operation is the same, the jack consists of a mechanism with a
single fork sticking out one side and a long lever on the other, the mechanism
climbs up and down a long vertical rack.
The fork bit is inserted under a form part of the vehicle and the handle is
operated, as the mechanism climbs up the rack, it lifts the vehicle - up
to 1.6 meters up ! It is probably the single most dangerous device you
will ever find relating to recovery - read, understand and adhere to the
instruction manual - or you may loose your face, teeth, eye, jaw, arm or
goodies. It almost goes without saying that you must NEVER step over the
This is a large heavy duty bag that is inserted
under the vehicle and then inflated using the exhaust of the stricken vehicle
(Provided it is running)
The bag is capable of lifting the whole vehicle up so be careful !
It has a valve on which is turned to gradually release the pressure in the bag
thus bringing the vehicle back down.
Spade and Shovel
Spades are good at digging through marsh ground
and harsh ground and getting in under the vehicle, but shovels are better at
moving large volumes of ground when making a hole or filling a hole. Even if
only you are going to use the spade/shovel, try take another one with
you as there are often locals that are eager to help recover your vehicle but
cannot assist because they do not have a spade.
Sand Ladders / Bridging Ladders
Sand Ladders come in many different shapes and
sizes, the best and original being the "Camel Trophy" type, which is
a thick alloy sheet with corrugations and holes pressed in. Take note that
these sand ladders are NOT bridging ladders and cannot be used to cross a ravine
These are not locally available but can be imported from Europe and the UK
Other types if sand ladders are the fold up
type (folds up into a cube) These are popular but have been known to
disintegrate on heavy use.
It is important to peg down the front of the
ladders to prevent the tyres from pulling them under the vehicle.
Bridging Ladders are another form of sand
ladder, these are thicker and have a double decker type of structure so that
they can support a tyre when crossing a ravine.
Bow Saw / Panga / Axe
These tools are very useful for clearing the bush
cutting down branches or even trees in order to make a road way or solid surface
to drive on.
If you are gathering firewood, a bow saw is most effective at cutting dry logs
and trees. A panga and an axe work well for wet wood.
Chains, nut and bolts
These can be fashioned into tyre chains or an effective
ground anchor using pegs.
These have a few uses in recovery, as axle straps
and as lashing straps:
The problem with coil sprung vehicles (Defender,
Range Rover, Disco) is that the suspension extends so much when jacking up the
chassis, that the high lifting effect becomes very little. If you strap
the chassis and axles together such that the springs cannot extend, the axles
get lifted much sooner enabling a you to fill the holes easier or throw the
vehicle to the side easier.
Tie-downs are useful for tying logs together to
drive on, or to make some ort of support...
Some Clever Techniques
If the vehicle is so bogged that the chassis and axles are in the
mud as well, you
need to use the high lift jack or Air-jack to lift the vehicle from the mud.
The vehicle is jacked up such that the
wheels are well out of the holes - the vehicle will be very unstable at
this point, be careful.
Either fill the holes with stones, rocks,
logs or what ever else you can find (Spare wheels), or stand on one side
and physically push the vehicle to the firmest terrain such that it falls
off of the jack and lands with it's wheels on new ground. This is most efficiently
done by jacking the vehicle to the full height of the jack before pushing
Repeat this procedure for the rear of the
After doing it a few times, not only will
you be totally exhausted, but the vehicle will also be standing on a new
surface and can then be driven to a safe place,
If your vehicle has dropped into a hole or ditch,
you can use the lever principle to get it out. First, find a long pole, tree,
plank or similar material
with a diameter that available people can handle. Place a suitable fulcrum
(pivot point) near the point of lift, a log or rock that will not move when pressure is
applied. Rig the lever under the bumper for the first lift. Support the vehicle
after each lift until it is clear of the mud.
Block the wheels when you have gained all you can. Re-rig for a second
lift with the point of the lever under the axle if possible. Lift and block.
Repeat these steps until the vehicle can be reversed off without too much trouble.
This procedure will be a problem with coil
sprung or heavily laden vehicles as the chassis and body will tend to lift
forever until the axle lifts, to get around this problem either tie the axle
firmly to the chassis using tie-downs or fit stones or blocks of wood between
the axle and chassis bump stop when the suspension is fully extended.
A Simple Lever
If you are alone and must move a light vehicle a short
distance without power, use a lever. You will need a fairly long pole or
crowbar, a rope, cable, or chain, and a suitable anchorage for the point of the
bar. The distance from the lever to the point of attachment of the tow rope must
be quite short to give you enough advantage. You will not move very far at each
try, but you will be able to move slowly.
Narrow ditches, slit trenches, and holes can
quickly stop your vehicle. They are common obstacles to off-road movement and
maybe hard to see. If your front wheels should drop into one, the A-frame is a
very useful recovery tool. It is not very difficult to put together nor too
complicated to use. You need two 2 meter poles with a large enough diameter to
support the front end of your vehicle. Tie them together near the top with a
figure eight or girth knot; use your tow chain or a length of rope. Dig two
300mm holes 1,2 meters apart to hold the legs in position when power is
applied. Rest the upper end of the A-frame on the bumper / bull bar of the vehicle with the
legs in the anchor holes. Select a suitable anchor in front of the vehicle. Tie a
line from the A-frame joint to the anchor, bringing the frame up to a position
where the frame joint is directly over or slightly to the rear of the bumper.
Move your winch line or tow line through a snatch block fastened to the A-frame joint and
secure it to the front bumper.
Winch up the front end of the vehicle until the wheels clear
the ditch. Then slowly reverse the vehicle back to solid ground. When safely away
from the edge of the ditch, lower the wheels and unhitch your vehicle. If you have
no winch, another vehicle may be used for power, though more rigging will be
Substitutes for a Jack
Another simple method, good for any wheel on a 4WD vehicle, is to rig an inclined plane with two logs of suitable size (or a
stone and a log). When the vehicle is driven ahead the axle is pushed up the log until
the wheel clears the ground. Set brakes and block the vehicle securely. You can
easily reverse off when your job is completed.
You can also fit a few rocks /
logs under the axle then dig a hole beneath the wheel until it is free, when
finished just drive off the rocks / logs.
On a more extreme note drive the
vehicle through a gully such that the wheel in question is lifted off the
ground by articulation.
To raise the front end, make your own bumper jack by
fastening a piece of timber at an angle to the front bumper with a chain
or rope. Move your vehicle backward until the timber is vertical and the
wheel clears the ground. Block the vehicle securely before
working on the tyre. When through, pull forward and unhitch.
Method for Raising a Wheel
out of a rut
If one of your driving wheels falls in a deep hole, you
can get out with a log and a chain . Chain the log to the wheel and move forward slowly to prevent
spinning. If the wheel spins, the log will damage the fender or other parts of
your vehicle. After clearing the hole, force the log under the wheel to keep it
from falling back into the hole. Clearly this method needs rims with holes in
such as the Pro White, Steel Disco or Land Rover Wolf / 130 rims.
Use of a Skid
A flat tyre or bad wheel that you cannot repair should not
stop your Land Rover. Use a skid on the rear wheels only. If necessary, change wheels from one hub to another. Use a skid in
the following manner:
Obtain a pole 100mm in diameter and
Place one end of the pole above the cross member near
the transmission and the other end on the ground.
Pass the pole under the spring U-bolts, align it with
the spring and lash it securely to the spring.
Move the vehicle, using front-wheel drive. Starting
will be difficult, but once moving, the vehicle will ride and handle
Substitutes for Tyre Chain
If your rims have holes in them (Pro
white, Disco Steel, or Wolf / 130 rims only) you can make up temporary tyre
chains. Thread a rope or chain through the holes in the rim round the tyre. Fasten them securely, but leave slack around the tires
to prevent damage. Remember, these are only temporary substitutes. Remove them
as soon as possible.